Anatolyev, Stanislav (2002) "Electoral behavior of US counties: a panel data approach", Economics Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 1–10
This note proposes an econometric framework for studying electoral returns using aggregate voting and socioeconomic panel data. Along with usual covariates, the model includes electoral unit effects, electoral subunit effects and time effects, and features nested groupings and heteroskedasticity. We apply the framework to model the electoral behavior of US counties in congressional elections.
Link to paper online:
Bickel, Robert (2007) "Multilevel Analysis for Applied Research: It's Just Regression!", Guilford Press.